ICCNexergy

Leaders in Rechargeable Power Systems

Battery Chemistry Experience

From Lithium Primary to Alkaline Chemistries, Our Experienced Team Draws Upon a History of Developing Solutions for Our Customers Around the World

We are proud to have a team of the industry’s top talent. It is their broad experience base that provides the critical foundation for ICCNexergy to stay on the edge of innovation and implement creative, state-of-the art energy storage systems for our customers across a broad base of applications. By leveraging our strong general knowledge of legacy battery chemistries, we are the industry leader in migrating our customers to the latest technologies, including lithium ion.

Lithium Primary

Lithium primary batteries, such as lithium manganese dioxide, offer high energy density, extremely long shelf life (two to three times that of alkaline), a wide operating temperature range, and excellent durability. With cell voltages of 2.8 to 3.6 volts, they provide much higher energy density than alkaline. Lithium primaries also come in a variety of sizes. As with their rechargeable counterparts, they are subject to shipping regulations.

Lithium primary batteries are available in many chemistries, each with their own particular attributes. Specifically, lithium manganese dioxide (LiMnO2) cells offer high energy density, reliability and excellent shelf life. Less volatile and less costly than lithium sulfur dioxide, LiMnO2 batteries offer a good balance of performance and safety. Lithium sulfur dioxide and lithium thionyl chloride, offer high energy density, extremely long shelf life (two to three times that of alkaline), a wide operating temperature range and excellent durability. Lithium iron disulfide cells (i.e. Energizer trademark E2 lithium) operate at 1.4-1.5V and have proven very popular in asset tracking applications. As with their rechargeable lithium counterparts Li-primary cells are subject to shipping regulations.

Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH)

Nickel metal hydride batteries can have capacities as much as 90% higher than equivalent size nickel cadmium cells. Moreover, they have less memory effect, are environmentally friendly and lighter in weight. The trade-off is that they have a slightly lower cycle life and require a more sophisticated charge control. The cost (for equivalent cell sizes) is more than NiCD, but the cost per WH is the same or less. Less volatile than lithium battery chemistries, NiMH does not require protection circuitry and is not subject to the burdensome lithium battery shipping regulations. The trade-off is that NiMH batteries have sometimes shorter cycle life, lower energy density and a higher self-discharge rate.

Nickel Cadmium (NiCd / NiCad)

Available since the early 1960′s nickel cadmium rechargeable batteries (NiCD or NiCad) are robust and relatively inexpensive. They are typically used where long life, high power and extended temperature range are important. However, their potential for voltage depression (“memory effect”) and the fact that they contain toxic cadmium (which requires recycling) have made them less popular.

Sealed Lead Acid (SLA) or Pb-Acid

Sealed lead acid (SLA) batteries have long been found in products that don’t require small, lightweight power sources. Best suited to stationary or wheeled applications, SLAs feature easy maintenance, a low self-discharge rate, and low cost compared to other rechargeable chemistries. The main disadvantage of SLAs is their low energy density, which makes them a bulky and heavy power source.  Many of the traditional SLA applications are now transitioning to lithium ion.

Alkaline

Alkaline primary batteries (alkaline manganese dioxide) are the most familiar to consumers. They are widely available and disposable. Rated at 1.5 volts per cell, alkaline batteries are available in the common AAA, AA, C, D and 9-volt sizes. Their combination of long (5+ years) shelf life, low cost and reasonable drain rate make them excellent for applications like toys, portable CD and MP3 players, smoke alarm back-up, remote controls and flashlights.